September 1, 1532: Anne Boleyn Becomes Marquess of Pembroke

Author: lissabryan

Anne Boleyn was born into a wealthy and well-connected family. While she had no title, her grandfather was a duke, and her father held several important court positions before Anne caught the eye of the king.

Her mother was a Howard, one of the most powerful families in England, and her father descended from the Butler family. Royal blood flowed in Anne’s veins, because she could claim Edward I, Eleanor of Aquitaine, and Henry II as ancestors.

Anne Boleyn was actually more well-born than Henry VIII himself.

There’s no doubt that Thomas Boleyn struggled financially during his younger years, but the notion that Anne was a girl plucked from genteel poverty and obscurity by the king is false. By the time Anne was reaching marriageable age, Thomas was a successful courtier, wealthy enough to finance careers at court for his children, and Anne was a popular young woman with fine marriage prospects.

In 1525, the king elevated Anne’s father to Viscount Rochford. Anne afterward signed her letters as Anne Rochford. Four years later, the king gave Thomas Boleyn the titles of Earl of Ormond and Earl of Wiltshire. (The king then granted the title Viscount Rochford to Anne’s brother, George.) This came with a significant increase in income for the Boleyn family.

On Sunday, September 1, 1532, Henry gave Anne her own title – the Marquess of Pembroke. It was the first time a woman had ever been granted a hereditary peerage in her own right.

The ceremony was held in the king’s presence chamber at Windsor. The short contemporary description we have mentions Anne wore a red velvet robe, trimmed with ermine, and her long auburn hair flowed loose. Henry placed a coronet on her head and handed her two patent documents, one of which listed the title she had been given and the other the lands it included.

Not including the property Henry had already given her, Anne now owned five manors and controlled an income of over £1,000 … £200 more than her her father’s income had been when the king first noticed Anne. She was a very wealthy woman.

The title came with the interesting provision that did not go unnoticed by the court. Usually, titles were specified to pass on to the legitimate sons of the title holder. Anne’s patent specified only that it would pass on to her male heirs.

Speculation must have been rife in regards to this omission. Perhaps some thought a bastard was already on its way, or that Anne would finally surrender her virginity without a wedding ring if she was assured any illegitimate son would have a semi-royal title.

There must have been those who thought the title was intended to be a “consolation prize” since Katharine of Aragon showed no signs of being willing to surrender and agree to the annulment Henry sought. Was that the intent? To throw the court off track in regards to what Henry was really planning?

There were a few reasons for Anne’s elevation to the peerage. Firstly, no one could now say that Henry was marrying a commoner – he was marrying a marquess. The following March, the king asked the Duchess of Norfolk if she did not think Anne was a finely dowered woman. The letter notes they sat in Anne’s apartments, “beautifully ornamented with splendid tapestry hangings, and the finest of buffets covered with gold plate.” The Duchess, who was no friend of Anne’s, must have internally rolled her eyes, since a good portion of that fine dowry had come from the king’s own coffers.

Secondly, Henry was meeting with King Francis in France in November, and he intended to bring Anne along, even though there was no royal lady willing to receive her. Anne would remain behind in Calais with her royal-sized retinue until Francis reciprocated the visit on English territory. While she waited, the people of Calais entertained her in royal style. When Francis came to Calais, he danced with a masked lady who -surprise!- revealed herself as Anne once the dance had ended. They chatted privately and Francis tacitly recognized Anne as Henry’s next consort, as hoped.

The stage was set for the next step in the plan.

Author: lissabryan

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Henry Norris, Accused of Adultery with Anne Boleyn

Author: lissabryan

Born around 1582, Henry Norris was a courtier who rose in the ranks to become Groom of the Stool. He was a close friend of Henry VIII, until he was accused of adultery with the queen, Anne Boleyn.

We’re not certain who Norris’s parents were. He was the son of either Edward or Richard Norris. His family had a history of service to the court, as Edward Norris was knighted for his service in the Battle of Stoke, and Henry Norris’s brother, John, was an esquire of the body of Henry VII, afterward serving Edward IV and Queen Mary I.

Norris achieved a number of court positions, including keeper of the king’s privy purse. He went to the Field of the Cloth of Gold with Henry VIII, and became a close friend of the king.

Interestingly, he doesn’t seem to have always acted as a sycophant either to the king, or to the current queen. As an example, he allowed Cardinal Wolsey to stay in his rooms when Wolsey fell from favor and found no rooms had been appointed for the Cardinal at court. But this doesn’t seem to have negatively impacted his relationship with the king, or with the woman who Henry was seeking to marry, Anne Boleyn.

The trust Henry had in Norris is evident because the king sent him as an agent in sensitive matters. He was present when Wolsey surrendered the Privy Seal. He was one of the very few witnesses to Henry and Anne’s wedding, and he was sent by the king to witness the execution of recalcitrant monks.

The rewards of this trust and position were plentiful. Along with the pay from his various court positions, Norris was given a yearly annuity of £100, and granted part of Thomas More‘s property after that man’s execution. As a result, his income topped £1300 a year, making him richer than many nobles.

Norris was appointed Groom of the Stool in 1529. His duties included cleaning the person of the king after he used his “close stool” or toilet. This intimate position was one of the most highly sought court appointments, as strange as that seems today.

According to David Starkey:

The Groom of the Stool had (to our eyes) the most menial tasks; his standing, though, was the highest … Clearly then, the royal body service must have been seen as entirely honorable, without a trace of the demeaning or the humiliating.

This person was usually the closest friend of the king, his confidant, and his personal advisor. Norris was with the king from the moment he rose in the morning until the moment he retired to his bed. He controlled access to the king, so whoever wanted to see Henry had to go through Norris first.

Norris had three children with his first wife, Mary Fiennes, but she died in 1530. He began negotiations to wed Anne Boleyn’s cousin, Madge Shelton. Madge may have been a short-term mistress of Henry VIII when his attention began to wander from Anne Boleyn. Madge’s mother seems to have resented Anne for encouraging this affair to “keep it in the family,” so to speak, and prevent the king from being influenced by a woman of a rival faction.

Perhaps it was that relationship with the king – or the rumors of it besmirching Madge’s reputation – that made Norris hesitate to marry her. For whatever reason he delayed the match, Anne Boleyn was irritated by it. She chided Norris one day when he was in her chambers. Norris replied he prefered to “tarry a time,” which Anne took to mean he was saying he had feelings for her.

Anne reportedly retorted that he was looking for a dead man’s shoes and if “aught but good” happened to the king, Norris would seek to marry her himself.

Norris replied he would never dare lift his head so high for fear it would be cut off, and Anne said she could lower him if she wanted.

The “confession” of this argument supposedly came from Anne herself while she was in the Tower, as reported by one of the unfriendly women assigned to guard her, Mistress Coffin. We don’t know the exact wording of the confrontation because it’s being recorded third-hand, through the words of a hostile witness. The records themselves are damaged by fire. So, the context of the conversation with Norris can only be speculated.

Writing these words bluntly strips them of any context. Many writers interpret Anne’s last line as a threat, that she would destroy Norris, but to me, that makes little sense in light of the conversation. Why would she suddenly threaten him? Especially when she realized listeners might take the conversation too seriously and sent Norris to his confessor to swear that she was a “good woman” and that it meant nothing? Would she threaten a man, and then ask him for help?

Some have interpreted this as Anne going way “too far” in the courtly game – possibly because of the stress she was under from losing the king’s favor – and that both of them were immediately aghast at what she had said. But Anne was an expert courtier who actually managed to hold her composure better when she had an audience – as this conversation obviously did. It seems out of character for her suddenly to lose her skills at repartee, especially when she had no emotional involvement with the man in question.

To me, it makes more sense if the entire conversation is flirtatious. He says he can’t stick his head up so high, and she says she can lower him down, so his head won’t be so far up. It’s silly, but so was much of the courtly flirtation of the day. Afterward, she realizes their words could be misinterpreted by someone who overheard the conversation, so she asks him to swear it meant nothing to his confessor.

This conversation was Anne’s guess about why Norris had been arrested. Anne was wrong. The conversation, and those dangerous words about a “dead man’s shoes” aren’t even mentioned on the indictment. It seems Cromwell might not even have known about it, or didn’t think it was notable enough to be included in the accusations. Maybe he felt he already had more than enough “evidence” to complete his task.

Rather, it seems that Norris was chosen because of the fact he had clashed with Cromwell regarding the funds from the dissolved monasteries. Norris supported Anne’s position on this matter – that the money should go to fund schools, rather than going into the royal treasury. Norris may have also been using his position as Henry’s confidant to give Anne information about Henry’s overtures toward rebuilding the alliance with the Emperor and discarding his alliance with the French. Norris, as a reformer, was no friend of the more conservative Seymour faction, either.

Some scholars have speculated that Cromwell may have been afraid that Norris’s position with the king was so strong that he could convince Henry to derail the plan, or possibly put Cromwell himself in danger. Norris was a strong supporter of Anne, wealthy, popular, and influential … Cromwell was already using the coup against Anne to rid himself of pesky political problems like William Brereton. Why not kill another bird with the same stone?

After leaving the Mayday joust, in which Norris had competed – riding a horse provided by the king himself – the king turned to Norris and began to interrogate him about Anne’s supposed adultery.

According to what Norris said in the Tower later, the king offered him a full pardon if he would confess to adultery with Anne, but Norris replied he would rather die a thousand deaths than falsely implicate an innocent person. De Carles claims Norris offered to defend Queen Anne’s honor through trial by combat, but was refused. He was arrested and after being questioned, was sent to the Tower.

It’s chilling, Henry’s indifference to the fate of Norris, once his closest friend. A cursory glance at the “evidence” would have shown Norris and the other men could not have been guilty of the charges against them. The indictment claims Anne had sex with Norris on October 6, 1533 at Westminster, but Anne was still secluded in her chambers at Greenwich during that time, after giving birth to Princess Elizabeth.

But Henry was determined to see Anne die, and perhaps the idea that her “lovers” were the king’s closest confidants gave the accusations more shocking power. The verdict was pre-ordained, and everyone knew it. Cromwell inventoried Norris’s property two days after his arrest, and began fielding inquiries about distributing it to favored courtiers even before the trial.

Henry seems to have wasted no time in mourning the fates of those in the Tower, as he took his barge of musicians and laughing courtiers down the Thames nightly to party with Jane Seymour. His best friend … The woman that he had once loved enough to shake apart his entire kingdom …

Something unusual happened during Norris’s interrogation. Chapuys reports at one point that two of Anne’s supposed lovers had confessed. Sir William FitzWilliam had interrogated Norris and presented something Norris said as being a confession, but the document does not survive, nor any mention of its contents. There is a badly damaged document which may relate to this confession, written by Sir William Kingston, in which Norris seems to deny that the confession is legitimate.

At Norris’s trial, the confession was read and Norris declared he had been tricked into giving it. Moreover, he stated that anyone who would present it as being a true confession was worthy of standing in Norris’s place (that is, as a condemned prisoner about to meet the axe.) Was FitzWilliam trying the same tactics as Richard Rich, who invented a false confession supposedly made by Thomas More at his trial?

As the king wished, Norris was found guilty along with the other accused. He went to the scaffold a few days later with George Boleyn, Mark Smeaton, Francis Weston, and William Brereton.

One of the witnesses recorded that Norris “said almost nothing at all” before he laid his head on the block. Likely, he gave the usual speech about being a penitent sinner and exhorting the audience to live a pious life. Norris was the second to bow before the axe, and died after only one blow.

His body was brought back inside the walls of the Tower and buried in the churchyard behind the chapel of St. Peter-ad-Vincula. He was placed in the same grave as Francis Weston. When the Waterloo Block was constructed, the church yard was excavated and any bones discovered were interred in the crypt of the chapel. If Norris’s remains survived, they are buried there.

Author: lissabryan

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Artifact: A Midsummer

A Midsummer’s Night Dream is a comedy play written sometime between 1590-1596 and is one of his most popular works. The play revolves around the events of four lovers from Athens a troupe of six actors.

However, what most people don’t know was that Midsummer’s Night Dream was actually produced for the court for her Majesty Queen Elizabeth I of England. Queen Elizabeth was a patron to Shakespeare and overall she was a huge supporter of the arts. Elizabeth’s rule sparked a golden age of peace and prosperity across England which meant there was money and time to support the arts. Elizabeth gave Shakespeare the money and support for him to be able to write full time. It is argued that without the support of the Queen Shakespeare would possibly not even have become an author.

When Shakespeare finished Midsummer’s Night Dream it was most likely performed for Her Majesty in her court as the Queen never visited a public theatre. It is said that Shakespeare was presenting one of the most beautiful passages of the poem and Elizabeth was beyond flabbergasted-

“That very time I saw — but thou couldst not —
Flying between the cold moon and the earth,
Cupid all arm’d: a certain aim he took
At a fair vestal throned by the west,
And loos’d his love-shaft smartly from his bow
As it should pierce a hundred-thousand hearts:
But I might see young Cupid’s fiery shaft
Quench’d in the chaste beams of the watery moon,
And the imperial votaress passed on,
In maiden meditation fancy free.” — Act II., Sc. i.

Apparently as Shakespeare was reciting this passage he was pacing in front of Her Majesty and to grab his attention she dropped her glove. Shakespeare fetched it for her and upon doing so he added;

“And though now bent on this high embassy,
Yet stoop we to take up our cousin’s glove.”

The Queen was beyond swept away and amazed at her patron’s skills and talents. The bond between Shakespeare and Queen Elizabeth was a strong one, she provided him support and she was constantly amazed by his works. He performed for her court multiple times afterwards performing other works for Elizabeth such as King Henry VI. 

When Elizabeth died in 1603 Shakespeare had a verse written in his poem Threnos which very obviously relates to the death of his dear friend and patron.

“Beauty, truth, and
Grace in all simplicity,
Here enclos’d in cinders lie.”

“Truth may seem, but cannot be;
Beauty brag, but ‘tis not she;
Truth and beauty buried be.”

Elizabeth was a guiding light to Shakespeare and without her, some of Shakespeare’s works would most likely not have been possible.

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